The fourth day of the Washington Tour was a very full day, but enjoyable nonetheless. Our first stop was at Brandywine battlefield. This was the site of another of Washington's numerous defeats. In his talk here, Joshua Horn outlined three reasons why Washington was defeated here:
- Washington did not adequately study the grounds.
- He did not have enough cavalry.
- He did not use the cavalry the way he should have.
Part of the group at the officer's headquarters building at Chad's Ford on the Brandywine
The Brandywine Battlefield
The bridge over the Brandywine
Elliot and friends listening to the talk. From left to right: Matthew, Elliot, Armando, and Ethan
Joshua Horn gave a short talk here on what happened in this short battle and the implications. This battle was also called the Battle of the Clouds (if I'm deciphering my scrawled notes correctly). The British regiment that had sheltered in the building was the same 140th regiment that had barricaded themselves in Nasa Hall in the Battle of Princeton. Col. Henry Knox, Washington's fellow strategist, opted to attack the house as doing otherwise would be seen as unmilitary-like. Washington, with Generals Sterling and Sullivan led the attack against the house with two brigades after an unsuccessful truce.
In spite of their seeming advantage, the Continentals were forced to retreat and flee, for several possible reasons:
- They were confused from the fight
- Disordered from the fog
- They were running out of ammunition
Our next stop of the day was Valley Forge, where the Continental troops wintered after the Battle of Germantown. Touring Valley Forge occupied the rest of the day. We definitely did a lot of walking and were very grateful for the bus ride back to the hotel!
The beautiful meadows and hills in the distance...so lovely and relaxing!
and Tobias enjoyed the bunks!
Personally, they don't look that comfortable! :)
From there, we walked to the monument that the Masons built in honor of George Washington, and here, Mr. Horn gave a short talk on the history of the Masons and how Washington was involved.
Washington was a Mason at some point and time in his life. Even though members were required to profess Christ, this does not mean that the masons were a Christian organization. We have mixed views regarding Washington being a mason. While it seems out of his character that he would join them, he did refuse to pose for a picture in his mason's uniform which seems to intimate he did not wish to be known as a mason. Now,the new-age masons are trying to claim Washington as one of their members.
Tobias showing off a bird's nest he found
Anthony Wayne was one of Washington's trusted Brigadier Generals and he earned the title "Mad" Anthony Wayne from the interesting and often eccentric ideas and strategies he proposed.
From the Anthony Wayne statue, we spent the rest of the day touring the rest of Valley Forge on foot and visiting a few other highlights as time permitted, including Washington's Headquarters, the Baron Von Steuban statue, Redoubts 3 and 4, and the Artillery Park.
Arianne (left) and friends Anastasia and Merisa at the Artillery Park